Tag Archives: filesystem

Converting RAID1 to RAID10 online

Schema of a RAID10 array

Schema of a RAID10 array (CC BY JaviMZN)

I have a (now old) HP microserver with 4 HDDs. I installed Ubuntu 14.04 (then in beta) on it on a quiet Sunday in February 2014. It is now running Ubuntu 16.04 and still working perfectly. However, I’m not sure what I thought on that Sunday more than 3 years ago. I had partitioned the 4 HDDs in a similar fashion each with a partition for /boot, one for swap and the last one for a BTRFS volume (with subvolumes to separate / from other spaces like /var or /home). My idea was to have the 4 partitions for /boot in RAID10 and the 4 ones for swap in RAID0. I realised today that I only used 2 partitions for /boot and configured them in RAID1, and only used 3 partitions for swap in RAID0.

I have a recurrent problem that because each partition for /boot was 256MB, therefore instead of having 512 (RAID10 with 4 devices) I ended up having only 256MB (RAID1), and that’s not much especially if you install the Ubuntu HWE (Hardware Enablement) kernels, then you quickly have problems with unattended-update failing to install security update because there is no space left on /boot, etc. It was becoming high maintenance and with 4 kids to attend I had to remediate that quickly.

But here is the magic with Linux, I did an online reshaping from RAID1 to RAID10 (via RAID0) and an online resizing of /boot (ext4). And in 15 minutes I went from 256MB problematic /boot to 512MB low maintenance one without rebooting!

That’s how I did it, and it will only work if you have mdadm 3.3+ (could work with 3.2.1+ but not tested) and a recent kernel (I had 4.10, but should have worked with the 4.4 shipped with Ubuntu 16.04 and probably older Kernel). Note that you should backup, test your backup and know how to recover your /boot (or whatever partition you are trying to change).

Increasing the size a RAID0 array (for swap)

First this is how I fixed the RAID0 for the swap (no backup necessary, but you should make sure that you have enough free space to release the swap). The current RAID0 is called md0 and is composed of sda3, sdb3 and sdc3. The partition sdd3 is missing.

$ sudo mdadm --grow /dev/md0 --raid-devices=4 --add /dev/sdd3
mdadm: level of /dev/md0 changed to raid4
mdadm: added /dev/sdd3
mdadm: Need to backup 6144K of critical section..
$ cat /proc/mdstat
md0 : active raid4 sdd3[4] sdc3[2] sda3[0] sdb3[1]
      17576448 blocks super 1.2 level 4, 512k chunk, algorithm 5 [5/4] [UUU__]
      [>....................]  reshape =  1.8% (105660/5858816) finish=4.6min speed=20722K/sec
$ sudo swapoff /dev/md0
$ grep swap /etc/fstab
UUID=2863a135-946b-4876-8458-454cec3f620e none            swap    sw              0       0
$ sudo mkswap -L swap -U 2863a135-946b-4876-8458-454cec3f620e /dev/md0
$ sudo swapon -a

What I just did is tell MD that I need to grow the array from 3 to 4 devices and add the new device. After that, one can see that the reshape is taking place (it was rather fast because the partitions were small, only 256MB). After that first operation, the array is bigger but the swap size is still the same. So I “unmounted” or turn off the swap, recreated it using the full device and “remounted” it. I grepped for the swap in my `/etc/fstab` file in order to see how it was mounted, here it is using the UUID. So when formatting I reused the same UUID so I did not need to change my `/etc/fstab`.

Converting a RAID1 to RAID10 array online (without copying the data)

Now a bit more complex. I want to migrate the array from RAID1 to RAID10 online. There is no direct path for that, so we need to go via RAID0. You should note that RAID0 is very dangerous, so you should really backup as advised earlier.

Converting from RAID1 to RAID0 online

The current RAID1 array is called m1 and is composed of sdb2 and sdc2. I’m going to convert it to a RAID0. After the conversion, only one disk will belong to the array.

$ sudo mdadm --grow /dev/md1 --level=0 --backup-file=/home/backup-md0
$ cat /proc/mdstat
md1 : active raid0 sdc2[1]
      249728 blocks super 1.2 64k chunks
$ sudo mdadm --misc --detail /dev/md1
/dev/md1:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Sun Feb  9 15:13:33 2014
     Raid Level : raid0
     Array Size : 249664 (243.85 MiB 255.66 MB)
   Raid Devices : 1
  Total Devices : 1
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Tue Jul 25 19:27:56 2017
          State : clean 
 Active Devices : 1
Working Devices : 1
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

     Chunk Size : 64K

           Name : jupiter:1  (local to host jupiter)
           UUID : b95b33c4:26ad8f39:950e870c:03a3e87c
         Events : 68

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       1       8       34        0      active sync   /dev/sdc2

I printed some extra information on the array to illustrate that it is still the same array but in RAID0 and with only 1 disk.

Converting from RAID0 to RAID10 online

$ sudo mdadm --grow /dev/md1 --level=10 --backup-file=/home/backup-md0 --raid-devices=4 --add /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdd2
mdadm: level of /dev/md1 changed to raid10
mdadm: added /dev/sda2
mdadm: added /dev/sdb2
mdadm: added /dev/sdd2
raid_disks for /dev/md1 set to 5
$ cat /proc/mdstat
md1 : active raid10 sdd2[4] sdb2[3](S) sda2[2](S) sdc2[1]
      249728 blocks super 1.2 2 near-copies [2/2] [UU]
$ sudo mdadm --misc --detail /dev/md1
/dev/md1:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Sun Feb  9 15:13:33 2014
     Raid Level : raid10
     Array Size : 249664 (243.85 MiB 255.66 MB)
  Used Dev Size : 249728 (243.92 MiB 255.72 MB)
   Raid Devices : 2
  Total Devices : 4
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Tue Jul 25 19:29:10 2017
          State : clean 
 Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 4
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 2

         Layout : near=2
     Chunk Size : 64K

           Name : jupiter:1  (local to host jupiter)
           UUID : b95b33c4:26ad8f39:950e870c:03a3e87c
         Events : 91

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       1       8       34        0      active sync set-A   /dev/sdc2
       4       8       50        1      active sync set-B   /dev/sdd2

       2       8        2        -      spare   /dev/sda2
       3       8       18        -      spare   /dev/sdb2

As the result of the conversion, we are in RAID10 but with only 2 devices and 2 spares. We need to tell MD to use the 2 spares as well if not we just have a RAID1 named differently.

$ sudo mdadm --grow /dev/md1 --raid-devices=4
$ cat /proc/mdstat
md1 : active raid10 sdd2[4] sdb2[3] sda2[2] sdc2[1]
      249728 blocks super 1.2 64K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
      [=============>.......]  reshape = 68.0% (170048/249728) finish=0.0min speed=28341K/sec
$ sudo mdadm --misc --detail /dev/md1
/dev/md1:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Sun Feb  9 15:13:33 2014
     Raid Level : raid10
     Array Size : 499456 (487.83 MiB 511.44 MB)
  Used Dev Size : 249728 (243.92 MiB 255.72 MB)
   Raid Devices : 4
  Total Devices : 4
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Tue Jul 25 19:29:59 2017
          State : clean, resyncing 
 Active Devices : 4
Working Devices : 4
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

         Layout : near=2
     Chunk Size : 64K

  Resync Status : 99% complete

           Name : jupiter:1  (local to host jupiter)
           UUID : b95b33c4:26ad8f39:950e870c:03a3e87c
         Events : 111

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       1       8       34        0      active sync set-A   /dev/sdc2
       4       8       50        1      active sync set-B   /dev/sdd2
       3       8       18        2      active sync set-A   /dev/sdb2
       2       8        2        3      active sync set-B   /dev/sda2

Once again, the reshape is very fast but this is due to the small size of the array. Here what we can see is that the array is now 512MB but only 256MB are used. Next step is to increase the file system size.

Increasing file system to use full RAID10 array size online

This cannot be done online with all file systems. But I’ve tested it with XFS or ext4 and it works perfectly. I suspect other file systems support that too, but I never tried it online. In all cases, as already advised, make a backup before continuing.

$ sudo resize2fs /dev/md1
resize2fs 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
Filesystem at /dev/md1 is mounted on /boot; on-line resizing required
old_desc_blocks = 1, new_desc_blocks = 2
The filesystem on /dev/md1 is now 499456 (1k) blocks long.

$ df -Th /boot/
Filesystem     Type  Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/md1       ext4  469M  155M  303M  34% /boot

When changing the /boot array, do not forget GRUB

I already had a RAID array before. So the Grub configuration is correct and does not need to be changed. But if you reshaped your array from something different than RAID1 (e.g. RAID5), then you should update Grub because it is possible that you need different module for the initial boot steps. On Ubuntu run `sudo update-grub`, on other platform see `man grub-mkconfig` on how to do it (e.g. `sudo grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg`).

It is not enough to have the right Grub configuration. You need to make sure that the GRUB bootloader is installed on all HDDs.

$ sudo grub-install /dev/sdX  # Example: sudo grub-install /dev/sda

Setting Shared Folder Compression on Synology NAS (BTRFS)

disk-managementIf you have a Synology NAS that supports BTRFS (mostly the intel based NASes) and that you decided to use BTRFS, there are a couple of shared folders automatically created for you (like the “homes” or “video”) but they don’t have the “compression” option set, and trying to edit the shared folder in the administration GUI does not help, the check box is grayed out, meaning it is not possible.

BTRFS compression is quite “clever”. It has some heuristics that evaluate if a file is worth being compressed or not so it won’t try to compress the 1GB video of your toddlers playing together which is a waste of time given that the compression achieved might not be visible. But anyway, even if BTRFS is “clever” it does not mean that if you have a folder named video that you should consider using compression. Simply just don’t do it.

For folders with mixed data like “homes” (which is the shared folder for all user home directory) you might have wished Synology would have activated the compression. Or if you forgot to tick the check box once creating the volume, you might want to change it. But there is a way to change that. It is not guaranteed that it won’t break your NAS, especially if you do execute the wrong command, but if you don’t mind the risk then follow on.

BTRFS allows you to change the option on a live system without troubles. However, existing data on the shared folder won’t be compressed after activating the option, you would need to copy again the existing data to take benefits for it or defragment it using the compression option (-c see man btrfs-filesystem), however depending on your amount of data this might take a while.

To do it, you will need to activate SSH remote connection (try to limit it to your local LAN and do not open it to the internet unless you know what you are doing). You will need to connect via SSH using the administrator account (admin by default, but you would be wise to change the default name). I trust you know how to activate SSH on your NAS box, if not I would recommend you don’t try to do the rest of this article, ask someone who might know it! From a Linux or macOS (OS X) system, just open a terminal and type:

$ ssh <admin>@<hostname>

(and replace admin by the correct user account and hostname by your NAS hostname or IP address)

On Windows, you could use putty and achieve a similar fate.

Once connected, you need to know your BTRFS volume path:

$ mount -t btrfs
/dev/mapper/vg1-volume_1 on /volume1 [...]

In the above example, it is /volume1. Now you should have a BTRFS subvolume (think of it as a BTRFS internal sub partition which Synology uses to define shared folders) called “homes” (or whatever other shared folder you would like to tweak):

$ sudo btrfs subvolume list /volume1
[...]
ID 259 gen 1688 top level 257 path homes
[...]
ID 264 gen 1686 top level 257 path video

So here we have made sure that the “homes” shared folder is located on /volume1/homes. Now let us check its properties:

$ sudo btrfs property get /volume1/homes
ro=false

Here we can confirm that compression is not set (note that compression was not set as a mount option, nor at the volume root). To activate is, you need to create the “compression” property, you can choose either zlib or lzo. The former compress better but is slower, the latter is fast but as much lower compression ratio. I personnaly choose lzo:

$ sudo btrfs property set /volume1/homes compression lzo

You can use again the previous command to get the properties for the volume and see if it was set. Now you can copy your files to the shared folder, and BTRFS will try to compress them if it thinks it makes sense.

Picture credits: Picture is from the KDE project. The original materials is licensed under GNU LGPLv3.

How to verify your Synology NAS hard disks

I upgraded my 2 HDD in my Synology NAS to bigger ones. The change and rebuild of the RAID mirror was seemless. But I wanted to verify the health of the filesystems before growing the volumes. Here is how to do it.

Note: I am making the following assumptions, you know what you are doing, you activated SSH on your box and know how to connect as root, you know and understand how your NAS HDD have been configured, you have a wokring backup of your HDD data, you are not afraid of losing your data.

First find out what is the drive name of your volume(s) and also what is the filesystem type:

# mount
/dev/root on / type ext4 (rw,relatime,barrier=0,journal_checksum,data=ordered)
(...)
/dev/mapper/vol1-origin on /volume1 type ext4 (usrjquota=aquota.user,grpjquota=aquota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0,synoacl)
/dev/mapper/vol2-origin on /volume2 type ext4 (usrjquota=aquota.user,grpjquota=aquota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0,synoacl)

In my case, I have created 2 volumes on top of my mirror. The device on which these volumes are stored are /dev/mapper/vol1-origin and vol2-origin, they are both ext4 filesystems. But you probably do not have such a setup and only have one volume on top of your RAID array and your device might simply be /dev/md[x].

The fact that my devices were in /dev/mapper hinted me that they might be a LVM layer somewhere. So I executed the following command (harmless):

# lvs
LV                    VG   Attr   LSize    Origin Snap%  Move Log Copy%  Convert
syno_vg_reserved_area vg1  -wi-a-   12.00M
volume_1              vg1  -wi-ao    1.00T
volume_2              vg1  -wi-ao    1.00T

So my 2 volumes are LVM logical volumes. Now that I have this information, I can do the following to verify the filesystems’ health. First of all, shutting down most services and unmounting the filesystems:

# syno_poweroff_task

Now if you did not have LVM but rather a /dev/md[x] device, you can simply do (if you have an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem only, and replace the ‘x’ by the correct number):

# e2fsck -pvf /dev/mdx

But if like me you have LVM, then you will need a few extra steps. The ‘syno_power_off’ has probably deactivated the LVM logical volumes, to be sure check the “LV Status” given by the next command (harmless, not the complete output is here given):

# lvdisplay
--- Logical volume ---
LV Name                /dev/vg1/volume_1
VG Name                vg1
LV UUID                <UUID>
LV Write Access        read/write
LV Status              NOT available
LV Size                1.00 TB

As you can see the logical volume is not available. We need to make it available so that the link to the logical volume is accessible:

# lvm lvchange -ay vg1/volume_1
# lvdisplay
--- Logical volume ---
LV Name                /dev/vg1/volume_1
VG Name                vg1
LV UUID                <UUID>
LV Write Access        read/write
LV Status              available
# open                 0
LV Size                1.00 TB

The status has changed now to “available”, so we can proceed with the filesystem verification:

# e2fsck -pvf /dev/vg1/volume_1

To finish this, you need to remount and restart all the stopped services. I do not know a specific Synology command to do that, so I simply rebooted the machine:

# shutdown -r now